Autophagy mechanism brings new hope to fight against aging – Zhejiang Channel – People’s network superrecovery

"Autophagy" brings new hope against aging – Zhejiang Channel – people.com.cn original title: "autophagy" brings new hope against aging in 2016 the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded the Osumi Yoshinori because he found, "the mechanism of autophagy". This is an evolutionary process in which eukaryotic cells can be partially recycled by delivering a double membrane vesicle to lysosomes. In contrast to other mechanisms of cell degeneration, autophagy can remove aging or damaged proteins, macromolecular complexes and organelles, leaving space for new physiological processes. In addition, autophagy is a key cellular process for the elimination of invading microorganisms and toxic protein aggregates, and therefore plays an important role in the fight against infection, aging, and many human diseases. Although autophagy was recognized in the 60s of last century, scientists have little knowledge of its mechanism and physiological significance in the next few decades. His work has significantly changed the understanding of this important cellular process. In 1993, Daisumi Yoshinori published the seminal discovery of 15 genes in yeast. Subsequently, he cloned the genes in yeast and mammalian cells and elucidated the function of the protein. On the basis of the seminal discovery, the importance of autophagy in human physiology and disease has been widely recognized. The concept of autophagy after the birth of review of the mid century, the researchers found that the cytoplasmic membrane structure contains degradation of hepatic cell in normal rats, but its abundance increased dramatically after the infusion of glucagon or after exposure to toxic substances. In 1963, after recognizing the ability of this structure to digest some of the contents of the cell, Kristen de Deef created the term "autophagy," which was widely discussed in the article. A few years later, based on the observation of electron microscopy, scientists have found that this phenomenon exists in mammalian cells. It is found that autophagy itself is at a low level, but this phenomenon is exacerbated in various tissues including brain, intestine, kidney, lung, liver, prostate, skin and thyroid gland. It is speculated that autophagy may respond to starvation or disease attack. In addition, in addition to the presence of autophagy in single cell eukaryotes, this mechanism is also found in the four film, amoeba, Euglena worms, insects and frogs were found in. Over the next few decades, progress in the field has been limited. There are many indications that autophagy may be an important cellular process, but its mechanism and regulation are not well understood. Autophagy is, in fact, transient, only in the fusion of lysosomes for about 10 to 20 minutes, which makes it difficult to study the morphology and biochemistry. Until the early 90s of last century, nearly 30 years ago, many fundamental questions remain unclear: How did the autophagy process start? How did the autophagy form? How important is autophagy to the survival of cells and organisms? What is the role of autophagy in human disease? Daisumi Yoshinori, an associate professor at the University of Tokyo, has decided to use yeast as a model system to study autophagy. Check that the yeast cells do exist.相关的主题文章: